Exercise A-I--2-a. Shoulder Cuts
1. Turn a cylinder to the largest diameter required.
2. Lay off measurements with rule and pencil.
3. With the gouge (where space permits) or the parting tool (in narrow spaces) rough out surplus stock, keeping 1/16" away from the lines indicating shoulders.
4. Caliper to the diameter of the second step.
5. The shoulders are cut down as described in "Squaring Ends, Step 6, Straight Cuts."
6. The new diameter or step is then trued up with a skew chisel in the same manner as a cylinder; except that in nearing the shoulder the chisel is pushed up on the cylinder until the heel, which is the only part that can be worked into the corner, becomes the cutting point. Fig. 10. In very narrow steps it will be advisable to use the heel entirely as a cutting point.
In spaces between shoulders, too narrow to permit the use of the skew chisel, very effective work can be accomplished by slightly tipping the parting tool sideways to allow a shearing cut to be taken with the cutting edge.
7. Where several steps are required on the same cylinder, each successive one is worked out as above described.
Note:--All preliminary steps in working stock to size, laying of dimensions, etc., in preparation for the exercise in hand, will be omitted in the following exercises: